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The 10 Biggest Animal Rights and Welfare Wins of 2014  盘点2014年全球动物保护取得的重大胜利 [复制链接]

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The 10 Biggest Animal Rights and Welfare Wins of 2014

盘点2014年全球动物保护取得的重大胜利

翻译+编辑:谢芮奇
来源:One Green Planet

As 2014 comes to a close, it’s a great time to take a look back at all of the amazing victories that animals won over the course of the year. It’s been a fantastic year for animals! From bans on circuses and horse-drawn carriages to new criminal laws protecting animals from abuses, all of our hard work advocating for animals definitely paid off this year. Here’s a closer look at ten of the very best victories of the year.
2014年已经过去,该好好盘点一下去年人们为动物征得的权益了!2014年里,动物们得到了不少的好消息。从禁止动物马戏表演,到禁止观光马车,还有新出台的虐待动物的法律, 我们为动物保护付出的努力得到了不错的成效。下面我们盘点了2014年在动物保护上取得的几个最大的胜利!


1. Salt Lake City Bans Horse Drawn Carriages; New York Primed to be Next

1. 美国盐湖城禁止了观光马车,纽约将成为禁止马车的下一个城市。

In recent years, the carriage horse industry has been exposed as outdated, dangerous, and cruel. The year 2014 showed us that this industry might soon be a thing of the past. In November, the Salt Lake City Council voted unanimously to ban horse drawn carriages within the city. Other cities may soon follow suit – in December, New York Mayor Bill de Blasio finally made good on a campaign promise to introduce a ban on horse drawn carriages in New York City, where recent accidents have placed the industry under intense scrutiny.  Horses don’t belong in city traffic, and these bans are long overdue.

近几年,观光马车产业被大量曝光为落后、危险、残忍的行业。2014年预示着观光马车行业将很快变为过去。11月,美国盐湖城市议会一致投票通过禁止城市观光马车的提案。其他的城市也会很快跟随者盐湖城的脚步。12月,经过动物保护人士的不懈运动,纽约市长德普拉西奥终于承诺将通过法案禁止纽约市的观光马车。马儿们本就不属于交通繁忙的城市;这些法案被人们期待许久,终于得以实现。


2. California’s Foie Gras Ban Upheld
2.美国加尼佛利亚州的禁止鹅肝法案正在执行中

Foie gras is an extremely inhumane product that is created by force-feeding ducks until their livers become unnaturally enlarged. In an attempt to protect ducks from this treatment, California passed a law in 2004 banning the in-state production and sale of foie gras. Producers and consumers of the cruel product sued in an attempt to block the law from taking effect, but the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found that the law was constitutional, and upheld the new law. This year, the Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear the case, leaving the lower court’s decision in tact. As a result, foie gras production and sales remain banned in California – a wonderful victory for ducks!

鹅肝是一种极端不人道的产品;通过对鹅的食道插管强行注射大量食物,商家才能确保鹅的肝脏达到市场上反常的巨大体积。为了保护鹅免受这钟残忍的虐待,加州在2004年通过了一条法案禁止在本州内生产和交易鹅肝。鹅肝的生产者和拥护者试图起诉并妨碍法案的正常生效,然而第九级上诉法庭判得该法案具备宪法权威性,并判得新的禁止鹅肝法案生效。因此,加州的鹅肝生产和交易仍然被禁止-对鹅来说真是好消息!


3. Circuses and Bullhooks Banned in Multiple Countries and Cities
3. 动物马戏表演和大象演出在多个国家和城市被禁止

More and more countries and cities are saying “No!” to cruel circuses and elephant bullhooks. In October, Malta voted to ban animal circuses, and in December, Mexico’s legislative body voted to ban wild animal circuses nationwide. These nations join eight others, including Bolivia, Greece, and the Netherlands, in outlawing animal circuses. Though progress has been slower in the United States, there were still several notable victories this year. In April, Los Angeles approved a ban on elephant bullhooks. In May, Miami Beach followed suit, and in December, the City of Oakland, California, also voted to ban elephant bullhooks. These bans mean that circuses that use elephants will more than likely never again perform in these cities.

越来越多的国家开始对残忍的动物马戏表演和大象演出说! 11月,马耳他投票禁止了动物马戏表演。11月,墨西哥立法院在全国范围内禁止了野生动物马戏团,成为既玻利维亚,希腊,荷兰,秘鲁,塞普路斯,巴拉圭,哥伦比亚和斯洛文尼亚之后的第九个全面立法禁止动物马戏团的国家。尽管美国在这方面的进程比较慢,但也取得了一些不错的进展。20144月,洛杉矶通过禁止大象表演的法案。5月,迈阿密也禁止大象表演。12月,奥克兰跟随步伐,也通过法案禁止大象表演。这些法案意味着大象表演将不再进入这些城市。


4. U.S. Military Ends Use of Live Animals in Medical Training
4. 美国军方在医疗训练中摒弃使用活体动物
For decades, the U.S. military used live animals during various medical trainings. These trainings often involved painful procedures for the animals, such as exposure to chemicals and repeatedly having plastic tubes shoved down their throats. Now, after years of campaigningby animal rights organizations such as PETA, the U.S. military has announced that it will replace live animals in a variety of these tests with human simulatorsa better solution for the soldiers training who are training to render aid to humans and for the animals who will be spared from these tests.

几十年来,美国军方都在使用活体动物用于医疗训练。这些训练通常都包含非常痛苦的程序,例如将活体动物暴露在强化学物质之下,或者将塑料管插在动物喉咙里。 然而,经过动物权利组织数年的不懈努力(如PETA,善待动物组织),美国军方终于宣布他们将用人体模型装置替代活体动物。对于军方来说,这也是训练的最佳方案,因为在实际战场上他们也将对人类进行医疗救助,而不是动物。而动物也终于可以免受不必要的伤害了。


5. India Bans Cosmetics Tested on Animals; China Ends Mandatory Animal Testing for Cosmetics
5. 印度禁止将动物用于化妆品检测;中国不再强制要求化妆品通过动物试验

India took two huge steps forward for animals this year. In May, the country passed a law toban the testing of cosmetics on animals within India. In October, India went one step further, announcing an additional law that bans the importation of cosmetics tested on animals. China also took important action for animals. At the beginning of 2014, China was the only remaining country in the world that required cosmetics to be tested on animals. In a huge victory for animals, China announced in June that such testing would no longer be mandatory. Cosmetic testing often involves extremely painful procedures, and so these new laws are wonderful news for animals.

这一年印度在动物保护上取得了巨大的进步。5月,印度通过了法案禁止用动物进行化妆品测试。10月,印度更进一步,宣布进一步禁止含动物试验的化妆品的进口。中国也取得了进步。在2014年初,中国还是全球唯一的强制要求对化妆品进行动物试验的国家。然而在20146月,中国宣布今后的化妆品动物试验将不再是强制性的。化妆品动物试验通常要经历极端痛苦的过程,将动物暴露在强化学制剂下测试直至皮肤糜烂、眼球溃烂或器官衰竭。因此,这些消息对动物来说都是难能可贵的好消息。


6. All 50 States Now Have Felony Animal Cruelty Statues
6. 全美国50个州都已经有了虐待动物刑法

In March 2014, South Dakota became the final state to enact a felony animal cruelty statute, providing stiffer penalties for animal abuse. Now all fifty U.S. states have such a provision, showing a trend towards taking egregious cases of animal cruelty very seriously. Further, the Federal Bureau of Investigation made animal cruelty a top-tier felony in 2014, which will allow agents to track abusers in the same way that they track other violent crimes, such as homicide.

20143约,南达科他州成为美国最后一个将动物虐待立入刑法的州。该法律将对动物虐待进行更大力度的惩罚。现在美国所有50个州都有这样的法律,这也体现了各州对待极端动物虐待案件的重视态度。此外,FBI(美国联邦调查局)更是将动物虐待作为一级刑事犯罪对待,并允许FBI探员对动物虐待者进行追踪调查,并予以严重动物虐待者和一级谋杀等暴力犯罪同等的关注度。


7. Animal Issues Get a TON of National Media!
7. 动物虐待案件在美国获得了巨大的媒体关注度

Animals got an amazing amount of national media attention in 2014. The Nonhuman Rights Projects’ Steve Wise appeared as a guest on the Colbert Report in July, explaining to millions of viewers why chimpanzees deserve to be recognized as legal persons. Jon Stewart repeatedly stood up for animals on the Daily Show, covering the carriage horse industry, ivory bans, and Chris Christie’s pathetic decision to veto New Jersey’s attempt to ban cruel gestation crates. Of course, Jane Velez Mitchell continued her wonderful track record of covering animal issues as often as she could. Because of such national coverage, millions of people were introduced to important animal issues in 2014.

2014年里,动物在媒体中取得了前所未有的关注度。非人动物权利项目史蒂夫·怀斯在6月作为知名节目科伯特报告的嘉宾,向数百万的观众解释了为什么黑猩猩这类高等灵长类动物应被赋予法人权利。约翰·斯图尔特在每日访谈中多次为动物发声,提到了观光马车、象牙交易以及新泽西州试图摒弃狭小养殖笼却被否决了提议的悲剧事实。此外,珍妮米歇尔继续录制她的唱片,并反复在唱片中提及各项动物权利议题,引起大众的关注。正是因为这些全国性的曝光,才使得数百万的人们了解到动物的真实处境,才促使了2014年取得的各项成就和改变。


8. Orangutan Granted Personhood Rights!
8. 红毛大猩猩珊德拉被法院赋予非人类独立个体权

After being held in a the Buenos Aires Zoo for 20 years, Sandra the orangutan was deemed anon-human person and granted her freedom! A court ruled that the conditions of living in a zoo were causing Sandra to be depressed and due to her complex emotional and cognitive abilities, she should be allowed basic human rights to protect her from this suffering. Sandra will be moved to a sanctuary where she can live out the rest of her years as she pleases.

在被布宜诺斯艾利斯动物园关了20多年后,红毛猩猩珊德拉终于被赋予了非人类独立个体权,获得了她的自由!非人类独立个体权意味着红毛猩猩珊德拉不再是任何人的所有物,不再是一个东西或是别人的个人财产,虽然她还不被赋予和人类同等的权利,但是比起其他动物被认作他人财产来说,这是巨大的进步。法庭判处中提到,被关在动物园的处境使珊德拉遭受了严重的抑郁和伤害。考虑到珊德拉复杂的情绪和认知能力,她应当享有最基本的人权(例如免于遭受饥饿,痛苦,享有尊严,得以被公正对待的权利),并有权免收不必要的痛苦和伤害。珊德拉将被送到一个保护栖息地,在那里度过她的余生。


9. SeaWorld Continues to Tank
9. 海洋世界的名誉和营收都持续下降

SeaWorld continued its Blackfish induced nosedive throughout 2014. Attendance is down, stock shares have lost about half of their value since last year, and sponsors are jumping ship with impressive speed. Most recently, SeaWorld announced the replacement of its CEO,James Atchison, and the elimination of more than 300 jobs. 2015 just may be the year SeaWorld is forced to choose between sinking completely or resigning itself to a model that does not exploit captive animals.

《黑鱼》这部纪录片对海洋世界造成了巨大的打击。这部纪录片曝光了海洋世界对待海洋高等哺乳动物(以虎鲸为例)的非人道对待以及虐待,并对揭露了整个海洋乐园产业的黑暗产业链。这部纪录片获得了巨大的关注度,使得海洋世界集团股票在2014年跌了近一半。最近,海洋世界宣布他们换掉了旧的CEO,并裁减了近300个工作岗位。2015年,海洋世界将不得不做出决策,选择彻底在市场上沉没,还是进行转型为一种新的不伤害动物的运营模式。


10. Animals Are Victims!
10. 动物在法庭上成为受害者!

In August, the Oregon Supreme Court issued a monumental decision in the case of State v. Nix, where the defendant was convicted of severely neglecting 20 horses. In that case, the defendant argued that, because horses are not legal persons, they could not be considered “victims” for purposes of sentencing. The Court disagreed, finding that the state legislature regarded the individual animals as the victims of abuse when it enacted the state’s animal neglect statute. This is a huge step forward in the move towards treating animals as sentient beings rather than mere property.

8月,美国俄勒冈州最高法院进行了一项里程碑式的判决。在一个马场主人对20匹马严重疏忽、对马造成严重伤害的案件中,法院将这20匹马作为受害席对待。这是里程碑的事件,因为马通常被作为他人财产,法院不可能将马作为受害者而对被告席审判。而这次俄勒冈州最高法院的审判对于动物权利运动是巨大的喜讯;这使得人们在对待上产生巨大进步,逐渐将动物看做有情感的生物,而非他人财产。



来源:http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/biggest-animal-rights-and-welfare-wins
快乐动保,给可爱的动物们自由!全世界动保人,联合起来!
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只看该作者 沙发  发表于: 2015-03-16

谢芮奇个人看法:
动物保护是全球性的运动,保护的初衷源于人类文明的进步,不再将动物看做他人的财产、附属品、可被人类随意利用,甚至虐待。经常有人说“动物保护是发达国家的事”,“我们可怜的人都管不过来,动物怎么去管”,然而,看了这个盘点之后,印度、马耳他、阿根廷、秘鲁、哥伦比亚等等这些经济不那么发达的“非传统意义上的西方国家”,却也在动物保护上做出了不可忽视的巨大进步。这说明动物保护是全球共同关注的议题,作为人类文明进步的体现,动物保护和人*权保护并不冲突,反而有巨大的促进作用。
快乐动保,给可爱的动物们自由!全世界动保人,联合起来!
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