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中国欲修改野生动物保护法原法被责为“野生动物利用法” [复制链接]

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只看楼主 倒序阅读 使用道具 楼主  发表于: 2015-02-25

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http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MjM5MDQ4MjgyMA==&mid=203130860&idx=1&sn=6e4d639d0702425d5c22b82784ccc2cb&scene=2&from=timeline&isappinstalled=0#rd



中国正在修订已施行了26年之久的《野生动物保护法》。专家普遍认为,中国不能制止滥杀野生动物,根源在于该法强调资源利用。刘琴报道。修订后的野生动物保护法将会更好地保护中国的野生动物 (图片来源:Kenno McDonnell)



在众多提请修改其侧重点的呼吁声中,中国正在修订《野生动物保护法》 。听起来也许奇怪,中国现行的1989年实施的动物保护法,立法之初也就是刚刚开放市场经济的时候,是为了鼓励野生动物的买卖,为国家挣外汇。

这部法律因强调资源利用、鼓励发展野生动物驯养繁殖产业而饱受诟病,被称为“野生动物利用法”。中国专家普遍认为,新法不能再强调对野生的利用,否则无法做到保护。根据新华社报道,新的法律草案将由全国人大常委会在2015年审理。

中国野生动物资源正面临栖息地破坏、人类乱捕滥杀的伤害,现行《野生动物保护法》对此无能为力,饱受诟病。

国务院发展研究中心资源与环境政策研究所副所长常纪文最近透露,专家们在5年前提都不敢提的动物福利,将被写入新的野生动物保护法中。

在他最近组织的一次研讨会上,常纪文披露了这一信息。在这次关于野生动物保护的研讨上,专家们的观点相当一致,批评现有的野生动物保护法名为保护,实为利用,造成今日中国野生动物资源破坏难以遏制的局面。

现行的这部1989年野生动物保护法由国家林业局,即原来的林业部起草并报送国务院。国内的野生动物养殖许可证都由林业部门颁发,林业部门认为,发展驯养繁殖产业可以起到保护野生动物的目的。但这个观点常常使国家林业局成为野生动物保护人士批评的对象。中国繁育圈养大熊猫的成功是这类保护的全球典范。即便如此,中国的熊猫保育人士也越来越多地把注意力转移到此行为对于野生大熊猫种群的威胁。

中央社会主义学院教授莽萍认为,这部法律提出的“合理利用资源”和“发展驯养繁殖产业”,是导致野生动物数量下降的重要原因,以资源利用为基础的这部法律无法制止乱捕滥杀,“养殖濒危、珍稀野生动物只不过是供富人、官商勾结使用。”

她举例说,中国目前养殖的老虎有6000只,但野外的老虎不足30只,养殖没有促进野生动物保护。重庆大学教授秦鹏也认为,养殖户往往鱼目混珠,直接去野外抓捕野生动物,成本低而且价格卖得贵。海南师范大学副校长史海涛举例说,龟类的养殖,使得执法人员难以分辨哪个是野外的,哪个是家养的,导致野生龟数量下降和种群灭绝。

世界动物保护协会提交的一份书面材料称,现行的法律是把利用作为目的,把保护作为手段,其实质是一部“野生动物法”或“野生动物利用法”。“只有把立法的重点放在‘保护’上,才能让这部法名副其实。”

2013年“两会”期间,人大代表、南昌航空大学副校长罗胜联与36位代表联名提交“关于提请修改《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》的议案”,引起中国社会关注。该议案认为,野生动物保护法将野生动物定位为“资源”,侧重于利用价值,不利于保护,应予以删除。

中科院动物研究专家汪松说,令他没有想到的是,自己20多年前参与制定的这部法律,竟然一动没动,到现在还没有修改。这部法律于1988年审议通过,1989年开始施行。中国在上世纪之所以强调资源利用,有其历史背景。汪松说:“那时提出发展资源利用,是为了给国家创外汇。快30年过去了,时代不一样了,现在修订都已经晚了。”

汪松曾对《京华时报》记者说,当年由于国家发展需要,在立法之初,中国视野生动物为资源,强调其经济价值。“那时我们出书,写到野生动物,都是什么可以入药,毛皮如何珍贵,可以出口,为国家挣外汇。”汪松说。

原林业部森林植物和野生动物保护司副司长卿建华,曾代表原林业部参与起草该部野生动物保护法。他在接受《京华时报》采访时也表示,中国对于野生动物的认识是一个逐步发展的过程。1959年,林业部发出第一个《关于保护野生动物资源的指示》,首次明确提出“野生动物资源归国家所有”。

在此之前,是“野生无主,谁猎谁有”,许多野生动物甚至被看成是有害的,《人民日报》还刊文宣传打虎英雄,很多地方推行“打一只狼奖一只羊”。到上世纪80年代,林业部起草了《野生动物管理保护条例》报国务院,当时一位领导提出“为什么是条例不是法?”因为条例是管不住很多事情的,于是,“条例”变成“法”报送。大约过了8年,1989年,《野生动物保护法》开始正式实施。

中国著名动物保护人士奚志农,把野生动物养殖业称为“罪恶的产业”,他想知道,动物保护法鼓励的这个产业到底给中国带来了多少产值,而让中国付出了这么大的名誉伤害。

海南师范大学副校长史海涛给出了答案。史海涛说,这部野生动物保护法使得中国的野生动物驯养繁殖业得以大发展,中国有两万多家养殖单位,总产值78亿元人民币。“78亿元毁了中国国际形象!”奚志农说,走出国门听到的都是国际社会指责中国滥吃野生动物的声音。在史海涛参加的很多国际会议上,许多国外学者指责中国人只捕杀不保护,“把中国称为龟类的死亡之地”。

“这种状况不仅严重破坏了珍贵的自然资源,还损害了中国的形象。”史海涛说,再这样下去,中国的野生动物资源快没了。

刘琴,中外对话北京办公室编辑


China is revising its wild animal protection law, amid growing demands for a dramatic shift in emphasis. Strange as may now seem, China’s existing 1989 animal protection law was written partly to encourage sales of rare animal parts to earn foreign exchange, back in the early days of market reforms.

It has been widely criticised, and dubbed an “animal utilisation law” as it encourages captive breeding and training of wild animals, rather than conservation and protection. Chinese experts are now calling for a new emphasis on animal welfare and conservation policies, and say the new law will fail unless it discourages trading in wildlife. A draft law is due to be considered by the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee in 2015, according to the official Xinhua news agency.

Habitat destruction, hunting and trapping are the main threats to China’s wild animal populations, and critics say the existing Wild Animal Protection Law is often powerless to help.

Attitudes to animal protection are changing fast. Chang Jiwen, deputy head of the Resources and Environment Policy Institute, part of the State Council’s Development Research Centre, organised a recent seminar at which he said that only five years ago experts would not have dared to suggest including animal welfare in an updated law.

Those present were in general agreement that the ongoing destruction of China’s wildlife will be hard to stop without changing the law’s focus on how to utilise animals.

The current 1989 law created a system of wild animal breeding permits, issued by what is now called the State Forestry Administration. The belief was that the best way to protect threatened wildlife was by developing a wild animal breeding and training sector. China’s success at breeding captive pandas is the global poster child for the success in this sort of conservation. Even so, China’s panda conservationists are also increasingly turning their attention to threats to wild panda populations.

Conservationists are increasingly criticising the law’s supportive focus on breeding captive animals. Mang Ping, a professor at the Central College of Socialism, thinks the current law’s language about “appropriate use of resources” and “developing the training and breeding sector,” are a major reason wild animal numbers have fallen, saying a law based on resources use cannot control trapping and hunting effectively. “The breeding of endangered animals is just for the benefit of the rich and officials,” she says.

She pointed out that China has 6,000 tigers in captivity but only about 30 in the wild.

Breeders often catch wild animals to pass them off as captive-bred, thereby saving money and increasing their profits, according to Qin Peng of Chongqing University.

As a result, enforcement officials struggle to distinguish between wild and captive-bred turtles, resulting in falling wild populations and extinctions, according to turtle expert and deputy dean of Hainan Normal University Shi Haitao.

A report from World Animal Protection argues the current law only offers protection in order to allow for utilisation of wild animals, saying, “Only when the focus is on protection will this law be worth of its name."

During the 2013 meeting of the National People’s Congress, delegate Luo Shenglian, who is also a deputy dean of Nanchang Hangkong University, joined forces with 36 other representatives to request a revision of the animal protection law. Their proposal – which gained wide attention -- urged dropping use of the phrase “wild animal resources” as it emphasises wildlife utilisation rather than protection.

Wang Song, a Chinese Academy of Sciences zoologist, helped draft the original law over 20 years ago, and says he is surprised is has still not been revised.

There are historical reasons for the emphasis on wild animals as a resource. Wang explained: “Back then we wanted to use our resources to earn foreign currency for the nation. Nearly thirty years later things are different and a change is overdue.”

Animals used as 'resources'

Wang once told the Beijing Times that, because the country needed economic growth, wild animals were seen as resources. “Back then if we were writing about wild animals, we’d talk about how they could be used in medicine, or for their fur, or to make export products that would bring in foreign exchange.

Qing Jianhua headed the forest and wildlife protection department at the former Ministry of Forestry, and represented the ministry during drafting of the original law. In an interview with the Beijing Times, he has described how China’s understanding of wild animals has gradually evolved. In 1959 the ministry issued instructions on protection of “wild animal resources”, specifying for the same time that such resources belonged to the state, he said.

Previously wild animals were not regarded as being owned, and therefore free for the taking. Many wild animals were also seen as harmful. The People’s Daily published articles about “hero tiger-hunters” and local governments would reward anyone who killed a wolf by giving them a goat.

In the 1980s, the ministry submitted regulations on the management and protection of wild animals to the State Council for approval. However, those regulations were upgraded to the status of a law so as to give them more force. It took eight years to complete the process, but in 1989 the Wild Animal Protection Law came into force.

'Evil industry'

Xi Zhinong, a well-known conservationist, describes the breeding of wild animals, something encouraged by the current law, as “an evil industry”. He questions whether the money China makes from the sector is worth the damage to the country’s reputation.

According to Shi Haitao, the industry is worth 7.8 billion yuan (US$1.25 billion) a year, with over 20,000 companies breeding wild animals and making products from them: “7.8 billion yuan to ruin our reputation!” he says.

When traveling abroad, Shi hears a lot of criticism Chinese for eating of wild animals, saying, “They call China a graveyard for turtle species. He says he has attended many international conferences where overseas academics attack China for hunting wild animals, rather than protecting them.

“This doesn’t just damage valuable natural resources,” said Shi. “It damages the national image.” And if this continues, he adds, China won’t have any wild animals left.
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只看该作者 沙发  发表于: 2015-02-26
中国对于野生动物的认识是一个逐步发展的过程

在此之前,是“野生无主,谁猎谁有”,许多野生动物甚至被看成是有害的,《人民日报》还刊文宣传打虎英雄,很多地方推行“打一只狼奖一只羊”。

1959年,林业部发出第一个《关于保护野生动物资源的指示》,首次明确提出“野生动物资源归国家所有”。

中国正在修订已施行了26年之久的《野生动物保护法》。专家普遍认为,中国不能制止滥杀野生动物,根源在于该法强调资源利用。在立法之初,中国视野生动物为资源,强调其经济价值。

动保的最高实践就是吃素
动保的最高理念就是护生
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只看该作者 板凳  发表于: 2015-02-26
这部野生动物保护法使得中国的野生动物驯养繁殖业得以大发展,中国有两万多家养殖单位,总产值78亿元人民币。“78亿元毁了中国国际形象!”奚志农说,走出国门听到的都是国际社会指责中国滥吃野生动物的声音。在史海涛参加的很多国际会议上,许多国外学者指责中国人只捕杀不保护,“把中国称为龟类的死亡之地”。

何止乌龟王八,所以的野生动物都是美味呢,中国确实是“野生动物的死亡之地”。
中国过去一直是贫困的形象,不是这部法律毁了中国的形象,也太抬举这78亿了,现在富裕了,可以不考虑这78亿了。
改变这种舌尖上的精美贪求是关键,提倡爱心最重要,而提倡善行爱心的最好方法是宗教,希望中国在这个方面能有所作为,希望人大代表能努力,更希望宗教人士中多出一些真正有道之士。

现在提出以保护为宗旨的理念确实令人心情振奋,中国在进步啊!
动保的最高实践就是吃素
动保的最高理念就是护生
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只看该作者 地板  发表于: 2016-05-22
楼主说得对,顶!d=====( ̄▽ ̄*)b
ミ 不属于我的爱づ
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